Shell Redirect

Discard the output
Sometimes you will need to execute a command, but you don’t want the output displayed on the screen. In such cases, you can discard the output by redirecting it to the file /dev/null −

$ command > /dev/null

Here command is the name of the command you want to execute. The file /dev/null is a special file that automatically discards all its input.

To discard both output of a command and its error output, use standard redirection to redirect STDERR to STDOUT −

$ command > /dev/null 2>&1

Here 2 represents STDERR and 1 represents STDOUT. You can display a message on to STDERR by redirecting STDOUT into STDERR as follows −

$ echo message 1>&2

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